Benefits Economics Environment Schemes Design News Industry Media
Web Buttons Links by v5.0.0
Trollino 25

forward reverse sitemap contact
Trolleybus News from around the world
No onboard fuel to cause pollution
Currently available Trolleybuses


New Trolleybus systems

In comparison with the installation of battery bus systems with stationary charging, there are cost advantages of using trolleybus charging; especially operationally where charging happens in-motion. Savings are made because of reduced fleet size, battery capacity and driver strength. While unit costs for charging stations and vehicles are similar between BEB (battery electric bus) and BOB (battery overhead bus) systems, capital investment is reduced for trolleybus systems because of the avoidance of any additional charging time and thus loss of availability that must be made up to provide an equivalent service.

 Electrification capital costs

 Dynamic charging

 Dynamic charging of electric buses

 Download article version PDF

 UITP In Motion Charging Knowledge Brief pdf

 Smart Trolley Grid

 Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the  Electrification of Urban Bus Lines

 Potential Application of Solar Energy Systems
for Electrified Urban Transportation Systems

Final EU Trolley 2.0 conference papers.

  orders 2000-2020
  model availabilty

TrolleyMotion News
TrolleyMotion Industry News

Related pages -

Promoting quiet, clean urban transport using
Overhead Electric, Zero Emission Trolleybuses -
email The Electric Tbus Group

updated 2/5/19

npv Net present value comparison between BEB (battery electric bus) and BOB (battery overhead bus) systems. The varables are considerable, but this example assumes 30% of the BOB system is wired. Adapted from Dynamic charging of electric buses by Mikołaj Bartłomiejczyk.

BOB Solingen is committed to converting its extensive trolleybus network to a BOB system that will enable conversion of all diesel routes, removal of 'special works' overhead and become a smart grid to use photovoltaics, stationary staorage and charge EVs. Route 695 now uses wiring on 30+% of its length. Christian Marquordt

System Design Options

Balances need to be assessed between battery sizes and overhead length depending on topography, timetable demands and costs. Where Praha is using 20-30% overhead length, Berlin is considering 50-65% a better option for their new systems. More overhead reduces battery needs but increases overhead costs, but as overhead lasts for 30-50 years and batteries perhaps 5, the equation is not straight-forward. Higher intensity of service will favour overhead and design can 'bunch' routes to maximise use, but amenity value also needs to considered. Simulation software has been developed using AI to understand power profiles and applied to particular system locations that can then incorporate costings. BOB Flow chart of the simulation program for a Smart Trolleybus Network.
Institute of Power System Engineering, Wuppertal University Salzburg Hess The reduction in battery sizing is available on dynamic in-motion charging systems. Recuperation of braking energy is particuarly effective. Higher power availability in the overhead grid lowers charging time, while installing overhead on slower sections improves availabilty. UITP Vehicle cost comparison, bob=battery overhead bus, beb-oc=battery electric bus:opportunity charging, beb-onc=battery electric bus:overnight charging, fc=fuel cell bus, based on 18m vehicles. Fabian Bergk et al. Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines. Costs per year against passenger capacity per hour for 18m vehicles. 24m vehicles with 2500 passengers per hour have lower costs on high capacity routes and, because of battery limitations, have only been shown to be practical as IMC trolleybuses. Fabian Bergk et al. Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines.

BOB Opportunity charging can be used on BOB systems - Stadtwerke Solingen has installed one at the Abteiweg terminus of route 695. Christian Marquordt

morocco Photovoltaics power the Marakesh IMC trolleybus system, integrated into its Smart Grid. Carbon offsets, avoided air pollution costs, lowering PV prices and subsidies offer additional financial benefits.

berlin Because of technological problems in preparing to electrify its bus fleet by 2030 using battery buses, Berlin BVG has developed plans for a bi-articulated IMC trolleybus network. The first route would be the 32 in Spandau with 50-65% wired for charging.

The Serious Contender

In summary, using state-of-the-art in-motion trolleybus charging technology provides the most cost effective and green solution for electrifying urban street transport. Not only are the economics convincing but the operational advantages have considerable impacts on total life cycle costs, especially when using 24m trolleybuses on networks that include dedicated roadways. With no evidence of quantum leaps in battery chemistry and problematical implementation of opportunity charging on large networks, IMC trolleybus technology represents the best public transport option to reduce street level air pollution and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

References -

  E-bus 2020 In Motion Charging - HAN University of Applied Sciences, Nijmegen, 2020
  In Motion Charging - Innovative Trolleybus, Gunter Mackinger et al., UITP Knowledge Brief, 2019
  Dynamic Charging of Electric Buses, Mikołaj Bartłomiejczyk, Gdansk University of Technology, 2018
  Kiepe Electric IMC systems, Seattle, San Francisco, Dayton, Milan, Modena, Rimini, Solingen, Linz, Esslingen, Arnhem, Zurich etc.
  Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines, Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, vol.6, no. 4, 2016
  Energy Saving Potential of a Battery-Assisted Fleet of Trollybuses, Andreas Ritter et al. Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 2016
  Analysis of limiting factors of battery assisted trolleybuses, Dobroslav Grygar et al, 13th International Scientific Conference on Sustainable, Modern and Safe Transport, 2019
  Potential Application of Solar Energy Systems for Electrified Urban Transportation Systems, Mikołaj Bartłomiejczyk, Gdansk University of Technology, 2018

More details of worldwide Tbus developments are here

Copyrights acknowledged
updated 12/3/20
By Ashley Bruce